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Transnational Associations and their Functions


Transnational Associations and their Functions
A. Context and Concept of INGOs
B. Growth and Spread of the INGO System
C. The Structure and Functions of INGOs
D. INGOs and World Problems
E. Probable Future Trends
Conclusions and Recommendations

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This paper by Anthony Judge and Kjell Skjelsbaek is identifiable as PRIO Publication 22 37, from the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo. It appeared in one form in A J R Groom and Paul Taylor (Eds): Functionalism: theory and practice in international relations (1975), pp. 190-224. The content was subsequently developed by Anthony Judge into International Organizations: diversity, borderline cases, functional substitutes and possible alternatives In: A J R Groom and Paul Taylor (Eds): International Organizations: a conceptual approach (1977), pp. 78-83. Revised versions of this have appeared under the title: International Organizations: an overview. In: Yearbook of International Organizations Brussels, Union of International Associations, 1978 (and thereafter) and online as Types of International Organization.


This paper describes and discusses a particular set of actors in the global social system which, in an historical perspective, may be considered newcomers on the scene They are frequently called international non governmental organisations (INGOs) [1], and this term covers a wide variety of organisational units with many and different functions Our objective is not to put INGOs into a comprehensive theoretical model, but to give a description of them and their relationships and activities using ideas and terms borrowed from the theory of functionalism First of all we shall discuss the context and concept of INGOs Then we shall present some data showing the growth and spread of the INGO system The following section is a presentation of what INGOs typically do, and what functions they perform On the basis of this we will then try to outline what we think are likely future trends, and we conclude this chapter with a number of policy recommendations, aimed at increasing the effectiveness of INGOs and improving their relationship with other kinds of actors in the international system