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Transnational Associations and their Functions

Citations of non-Kairos documents (References)

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1. INGO is the accepted abbreviation in academic circles Intergovernmental system documents refer to NGOs avoiding any definition of international or any clear distinction between national and international NGOs The term is usually restricted to nonprofit bodies, in which case the profit making bodies are referred to as multinational corporations (MNCs) or business INGOs

2. For example, in Arab countries or those with a Moslem culture, a common form or organisation for social development is the 'Waq' (mentioned in the Koran) which bears some resemblance to a Western religious fund or foundation It is not known whether any of these are 'international' Similarly, the family name and ancestral province association play an important role in and between countries with a Chinese population

3. Each new issue inspires a new configuration of bodies This has been discussed in connection with political party election machinery in Richard R Fagan Politics and Communication Little, Brown, 1966 (Chapter on the 'Components of Communication Networks') For a means of developing this technique, see Anthony Judge, New types of social entity, the role of the potential association International Associations 23, 1971.

4. Many United States trade unions are 'international' in the title, eg International Longshoremen's Association.

5. There is a movement to restrict 'international' to 'intergovernmental' and to refer to INGOs as transnational associations, see G P Speeckaert, Trans national ou International? International Associations, 24, 1972, 4, p.225 232 It has also been suggested that the word transnational should be reserved for international organisations with individual members only The term INGO would then apply to international organisations with national chapters, the structure of which is heavily influenced by the nation-state system, of Johan Galtung's forthcoming book on transnationalism and peace in the World Order Models series of the World Law Fund At present about 50 per cent of the INGOs in the Yearbook of International Associations permit individual membership only via national chapters In roughly 25 per cent of the cases individuals must be directly affiliated, and in the remaining 25 per cent of the organisations both types of affiliation are possible, of Kjell Skjelsbaek 'A Survey of International Nongovernmental Organisations,' unpublished paper, the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 1972

6. 'Any international organisation which is not established by intergovernmental agreement shall be considered as a nongovernmental organisation ' (un ECOSOC Resolution 1296 (XLIV) June 1968) See discussion in G P Speeckaert ibid

7. Judge, Anthony. Summary of the crises in inter-organisational relationships at the international level. International Associations, 24, 1972, 5, Also 'The UN System's ivory tower strategy,' in International Associations, 23, 1971, 1, p [text]

8. Boulding, Kenneth E.  Management of "intersect" institutions,' in Management in a Changing World (Papers sponsored by the Conference Board  (usa) to be published at the end of 1972).

9. The United Nations, even through its Agencies concerned with trade, cannot recognise the existence of multinational business enterprises as INGOs because of the political sensitivity of profit making The exception is FAO through its FAO/lndustry Cooperative Programme on which multinationals are represented This embarrassment is in sharp contrast with OECD which has a Business and Industry Advisory Committee

10. For a broad definition of voluntary, see: David Horton Smith, et. al.'Types of voluntary action; a definitional essay', In: David Horton Smith (Ed.) Voluntary Action Research. Lexington, Lexington Books, 1972. (See also: Journal of Voluntary Action Research.)

11. Those 'recognised' by the United Nations acquire a measure of legal significance. There have also been attempts to extend the interpretation of the status of private persons in international law to cover collectivities. See: Université Catholique du Louvain. Premier collogue de Departement des Droits de l'Homme (1969); les droits de I'homme et les personnes morales. Bruxelles, Emils Bruylant, 1970.

12. Belgium is the only country to recognise and provide special legislation and facilities for ingos (Law of 25 October 1919 expanded by Law of 6 December 1954) which is one reason why 490 INGOs have offices there. Efforts are being made by the European Economic Commission to define a 'European Corporation' to which international trade unions will have a specially recognised relationship

13. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Task Force Report: Organised Crime. Washington, us Government Printing Office, 1967. Note that profits to organised crime from gambling, loan sharking and narcotics (excluding infiltrated legitimate business and other operations) are probably in the region of $ 8 billion per year in the United States alone. One could perhaps also make the distinction between legality, in terms of laws and regulations, and legitimacy, in terms of moral codes. Some organisations and organisational activities may be legal, but not legitimate, and vice versa. Generally speaking, legal organisations are more visible than illegal ones.

14. Twenty-five per cent of the studies on international nongovernmental organisations listed in the International Political Science Bibliography over the past eight years are concerned with one organisation, the International Red Cross.

15. Speeckaert, Georges P.  Les associations momentanées d'organisations Internationales. International Associations, 23, 1971, 4, pp. 205-217.

16. Riegner, G. M.  Consultative Status; recent developments and future prospects (11th General Conference of Nongovernmental Organisations in Consultative Status with Ecosoc). Geneva, 1969, 11/GC/22, pp. 2.

17. 'Cross-modal' is a term used in psychology, to refer to the ability of an individual to handle and integrate several modes of sensation (sight, sound, etc.). It seems equally applicable to the degree of integration of different modes of organisation action.

18. 'The problem of the seventies will lie not so much within the organisation as between it and society. We shall have to look much more to the social and family life or organisations, at organisational marriage and divorce, at the children that organisations spawn. We shall begin to know organisations by the company they keep. The future, I think, will be social, political, inter- organisational.' Harold J. Leavitt, 'The Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow of Organisations.' European Business, Spring 1971, 29, pp. 28-33.

19. United Nations, ECOSOC. Arrangements for consultation with non- govern- mental organisations. E/RES/1296 (XLIV), 25 June 1968. Text and commentary reprinted in International Associations 20, 9, 1968, pp. 609-649.

20. Yearbook of International Organisations (19701971) Brussels, Union of International Associations, 1971, 1053 p

21. Skjelsbaek, Kjell.  The growth of international nongovernmental organisations in the twentieth century International Organisation, 25, 3, 1971, p.420442.

22. Pearson, Lester B.  Partners in Development; report on the Commission on International Development. Praeger, 1969, p.185-189.

23. An example of the concern of trade unions is the action taken by the International Federation of Chemical and General Workers Union (icf) in 1969 The ICF coordinated the confrontation with the French multinational glass manufacturing company, Compagnie de Saint Gobain, by unions in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy and the United States The confrontation dramatised a development which was taking place over a much wider front See Robert W Cox, 'Labor and Transnational Relations', Internationa! Organisation XXV, No 3 (1971), p.556557

24. Anthony Jay suggests that the tendency of bureaucracies to frustrate the formation of natural working groups (ten groups) leads to the enormous burgeoning of societies, professional associations, action committees and the like which provide the channel for the instinctively needed face to face purposeful group relationships

25. Donald Schon notes that the network of organisations is always out of phase with the reality of problems that people think are worth solving The problem is to reduce this mismatch by increasing the response time of the network

26. Depending on assumptions annual non travel expenditure by participants at international conferences in 1971 is estimated at US $ 0 25-3 0 billion Travel expenditure is estimated at US $ 0 40-4 0 billion (Ithas been estimated that one per cent of air travel arrivals are for international meetings ) Investment in conference facilities in 1966 was $ 0 8 billion ($ 8 billion required by 1980) The number of participants travelling annually to international meetings is estimated at 2 million in 1971 (450 million in 1985)

27. A group is currently forming in London to create an experimental INGO clearing body on which INGOs and MNCs would be represented This would act as an interface to permit INGOs to benefit from MNC skills and to permit the latter to elaborate non profit social programmes using INGO channels

28. The term 'invisible college' is applied to the informal networks of scholars with an interest in a particular topic on which they exchange reprints, comments, etc The network may be loose or very precisely defined but is vital to the research activity and professional standing of those concerned

29. Galtung, Johan.  Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, VI, No 3  (1969).

30. Skjelsbaek, Kjell.  Peace and International Organisations. Journal of Peace Research, IX, No 4  (1972).

31. Our reasoning here is parallel to that of David Mitrany as expressed in his book A Working Peace System (Chicago Quardrangle Books, 1966) It should be noted however, that Mitrany primarily thought of IGOs, but we feel that his functionalist propositions are equally applicable to INGOs

32. Gleditsch, Nils Petter.  Interaction Patterns in the Middle East, Cooperation and Conflict, VI, No 1 (1971) and Kjell Skjelsbaek, 'The Representation of Divided Countries in International Nongovernmental Organisations'  (Forth coming).

'Des associations revetant les formes d'une organisation Internationale peuvent être creee par des personnes de droit prive ou de droit public non etatique Mais, n'etant pas formees par les Etats, ce ne sont pas la des organisations Internationales au sens strict des termes ' (W J Ganshof van der Meersch. Organisations Europeennes Bruxelles, Emile Bruylant, 1966)

34. As an example, in justifying the exclusion of certain categories of organisations from an adequate data base on the global system, Michael Wallace and J David Singer make the following point 'First, our theoretical interests (and, we suspect, those of most of our colleagues) are more concerned with IGO's (intergovernmental organisations) than with nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) One can hardly urge that the amount of NGO is likely to be important in accounting for many of the theoretically interesting phenomena which occurred in the system of the past century or so ' Intergovernmental organisations in the Global System, 18151960, A Quantitative Description' International Organisation, 24, 2, Spring 1970, p.240) For some of the consequences of this attitude, see Chadwick F. Alger, 'Research on Research, a decade of quantitative and field research on international organisations' International Organ/sat/on, Summer 1970, p.414450 This study indicated that 66% of the studies were on the UN (28 bodies), 19% on the other IGO (201, possibly with the UN, 14% were on INGOs (2577), and 8% were on MNCs(2819) (Data on the numbers from the 1968 1969 edition of the Yearbook of International Organizations)

35. This general ignorance about INGOs is clearly reflected even in the deliberations of the ECOSOC subcommittee on NGOs, which, among other things, selects INGOs for consultative status

36. For example, it proved impossible to create a national professional body in the USSR to work on public administration, stimulated by membership of the International Institute of Administrative Sciences, because public admini- stration was not considered a science in the USSR

37. In reviewing the results of the United Nations first Development Decade (19601970), the Secretary General of UNCTAD stressed that the highest priority should be placed on the persuasion of public opinion and the creation of political will to avoid a second Development Decade of even deeper frustration The danger lies in the probability that the United Nations system public information programme (together with those of the national United Nations Associations) will lead the informed public, many decision makers, and UN officials to believe that the UN is doing all that can or need be done and has the attack on every world problem well coordinated This automatically devalues the activities of other bodies, reduces the allocation of resources and support to them, dampens initiative from the local and national level which is not channelled through governmental and UN channels, and effectively nullifies the type of constructive criticism which can lead to renewal of effort new approaches, and galvanization of the political will necessary to th< accomplishment of all internation (and UN) programme objectives

38. See also David Horton Smith. 'Future trends in voluntary action ' International Associations, 24, 2, 1972, pp.166-169

39. Judge, Anthony. Wanted New Types of Social Entity. International Associations, 23, 3, 1971, p.148-170 Also 'Communication and International Organisations', International Associations, 22 2, 1970, p.67-69 [text]

40. See argument, also appropriate to social system entities, in David Bohn The Special Theory of Relativity New York, Benjamin, 1965,

41. See especially Norman J Schofield 'A topological model of international relations'

42. As an indication of the amount of internationally unrecognized organisation activity on which the more visible INGOs are based, David Horton Smith estimates for the usa that there are from 30 to 100 voluntary associations per 1000 population in towns with less than 10000 (5 to 30 per 1000 for larger towns) giving approximately 5 million voluntary bodies for the USA as a whole ('Estimation of the total number of voluntary associations in the United States' Washington, D C, Center for a Voluntary Society, 1970, unpublished paper, preliminary investigation shows that similar per capital figures hold in European countries) An indication of the amount of ad hoc linkage represented by the meetings of such bodies is given by a study for the Social Work Advisory Service (London) It was found that those with offices held an average of 23 inside meetings per year of more than 10 people, and an average of 5 outside meetings per year of which SO per cent were for more than 200 people (A study into the feasibility of establishing an administrative centre for a group of voluntary organisations London, 1970, summarized in International Associations, 24, 1972, 3, p.155 157)

43. Galtung, Johan.  Non territorial actors and the problem of peace; Oslo, Paper of the International Peace Research Institute, 1969.

44. 'I have found in the corporation something that I can explain only in territorial terms even though it is not strictly territorial It is a kind of territorial defense of role or job, and although it certainly operated within individuals, it is at its most powerful in groups "my department's responsibility", "my salesmen's area", "my union's job" The result is something I can only call a quasi territorial response, a defense of your means of livelihood calling upon territorial instincts but not precisely or exclusively territorial in its application'

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