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International Nongovernmental Organizations and their Functions

Citations of non-Kairos documents (References)

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1. "INGO" is the accepted abbreviation in academic circles. Intergovernmental system documents refer to "NGOs" avoiding any definition of international or any clear distinction between national and international NGOs. The term is usually restricted to nonprofit bodies, in which case the profit-making bodies are referred to as multinational corporations (MNCs) or business INGOs (BINGOs),

2. For example, in Arab countries or those with a Moslem culture, a common form of organization for social development is the "Waq" (mentioned in the Koran) which bears some resemblance to a Western religious fund or foundation. It is not known whether any of these are "international". Similarly, the family name and ancestral province association play an important role in and between countries with a Chinese population.

3. Each new issue inspires a new configuration of bodies. This has been discussed in connection with political party election machinery in Richard R. Fagan. ' Politics and Communication. Little, Brown, 1966 (Chapter on the "Components of Communication Networks"). For a means of developing this technique, see: Anthony Judge, New types of social entity; the role of the potential association. International Associations 239 1971

4. Many United States trade unions are "international" in the title, e.g. International Longshoremen's Association.

5. There is a movement to restrict "international" to "intergovernmental" and to refer to INGOs as transnational associations; see: G.P. Speeckaert, Transnational ou International? International Associations, 24, 19727 4, pp. 225- 232.

6. "Any international organization which intergovernmental agreement shall be mental organization-" (UN ECOSOC Resolution 1296 (XLIV) June 1968). See discussion in G.P. Speeckaert, ibid.

7. Judge, Anthony. Summary of the crises in inter-organizational relationships at the international level. International Associations, 24, 1972, 5, Also: The UN System's ivory tower strategy. International Associations, 23, 1971,, pp.. 24-48 [text]

8. Kenneth E. Boulding. Management of "intersect" institutions. In: Management in a Changing World, Conference Board, USA 1972

9. The United Nations, even through its Agencies concerned with trade, cannot recognize the existence of multinational business enterprises as INGOs because of the political sensitivity of profit-making. The exception is FAO through its FAO/Industry Cooperative Programme on which multinationals are represented. This embarrassment is in sharp contrast with OECD which has a Business and Industry Advisory Committee.

10. For a broad definition of voluntary, see: David Horton Smith, Types of voluntary action; a definitional essay. In: D.H. Smith (Ed.) Voluntary Action Research. Lexington, Lexington Books, 1972. (See also: Journal of Voluntary Action Research.)

11. Those "recognized" by the United Nations acquire a measure of legal significance. There have also been attempts to extend the interpretation of the status of private persons in international law to cover collectivities. See: Université Catholique de Louvain. ' Premier colloque de Département des Droits de 1'Homme (1969); les droits de 1'homme et les personnes Morales. Bruxelles. Emile Bruylant, 1970.

12. Belgium is the only country to recognize and provide special legislation and facilities for INGOs (Law of 25 October 1919 expanded by Law of 6 December 1954) which is one reason why 490 INGOs have offices there. Efforts are being made by the European Economic Commission to define a "European Corporation" to which international trade unions will have a specially recognized relationship.

13. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Task Force Report: Organized Crime. Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1967. Note that profits to organized crime from gambling, loan sharking and narcotics (excluding infiltrated legitimate business and other operations) are probably in the region of $ 8 billion per year in the United States alone.

14. 25 per cent of the studies on international nongovermental organizations listed in the International Political Science Bibliography over the past eight years are concerned with one organization, the International Red Cross.

15. G.P. Speeckaert. Les associations momentanées d'organisations internationales. International Associations, 23, 1971, 4, pp. 205-217.

16. G.M. Riegner. Consultative Status; recent developments and future prospects (11th General Conference of Nongovernmental Organizations in Consultative Status with ECOSOC). Geneva, 1969, 11/GC/22, p. 2

17. "Cross-modal" is a term used in psychology, to refer to the ability of an individual to handle and integrate several modes of sensation (sight, sound, etc.). It seems equally applicable to the degree of integration of different modes of organization action.

18. "The problem of the seventies will lie not so much within the organization as between it and society. We shall have to look much more to the social and family life of organizations, at organizational marriage and divorce, at the children that organizations spawn. We shall begin to know organizations by the company they keep. The future, I think, will be social, political, inter-organizational." Harold J. Leavitt, The Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow of Organizations. European Business, Spring 1971, 29, pp. 28-33.

19. United Nations, ECOSOC. Arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations. E/RES/1296 (XLIV), 25 June 1968. (Text and commentary reprinted in International Associations 20, 9, 1968, pp. 609-649.

20. Union of International Associations. Yearbook of International Organizations (1970-1971). Brussels, Union of International Associations, 1971, 1053 p.

21. Kjell Skjelsbaek. Development of the systems of international organizations; a diachronic study. IPRA Papers on Peace Research: proceedings of the Second International Peace Research Association General Conf erence. Assen; Netherlands, Van Gocum, 1970. Kjell Skjelsbaek. The growth of international nongovernmental organizations in the twentieth century. International Organization 25, 39 1971, p. 420-442.

22. Lester B. Pearson. Partners in Development; report on the Commission on International Development. 1969, pp. 185-189. Praeger,

23. An example of the concerns of trade unions is the action taken by the International Federation of Chemical and General Workers Union (ICF) in 1969. The ICF coordinated the confrontation with the French multinational glass manufacturing company, Compagnie de Saint Gobain, by unions in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy and the United States. This confrontation dramatized a development which was taking place over a much wider front, See: Robert W. Cox, "Labor and Transnational Relations International Organization M, No. 3 (1971), pp. 556- 557.

24. Antony Jay. Corporation Man. Jonathan Cape, 1972, p. 58 (suggests that the tendency of bureaucracies to frustrate the formation of natural working groups (ten- groups) leads to the enormous burgeoning of societies, professional associations, action committees and the like which provide the channel for the instinctively needed face-to-face purposeful group relationships.)

25. Donald Schon. Beyond the Stable State; public and private learning in a changing society. London, Temple Smith, 1971 (Notes that the network of organizations is always out-of-phase with the reality of problems that people think are worth solving. The problem is to reduce this mismatch by increasing the response-time of the network.)

26. Depending on assumptions annual non-travel expenditure by participants at international conferences in 1971 is estimated at US S 0.25 - 3.0 billion. Travel expenditure is estimated at US $ 0.40 - 4.0 billion. (It has been estimated that one per cent of airtravel arrivals are for international meetings.) Investment in conference facilities in 1966 was $ 0.8 billion (5 8 billion required by 1980). The number of participants travelling annually to international meetings is estimated at 2 million in 1971 (4-50 million in 1985). (Data at Union of International Associations. See also: International Organizations and the Budgetary and conomic Aspects of their Congresses. Brussels, UIA, 1971.)

27. A group is currently forming in London to create an experimental INGO clearing body on which INGOs and MNCs would be represented. This would act as an interface to permit INGOs to benefit from MNC skills and to permit the latter to elaborate non-profit social programmes using INGO channels.

28. Johan Galtung. Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 7, 3, 1969.

29. Diana Crane. Transnational networks in basic science. International Organization, 25, 1971, pp. p. 585-601 (The term "invisible college" is applied to the informal networks of scholars with an interest in a particular topic on which they exchange reprints, comments, etc. The network may be loose orvery precisely defined but is vital to the research activity and professional standing of those concerned. )

30. Kjell Skjelsbaek. Peace and International Organizations. Journal of Peace Research, 9, 4, 1972

31. Our reasoning here is parallel to that of David Mitrany as expressed in his book A Working Peace System (Quadrangle Books, 1966). It should be noted, however, that Mitrany primarily thought of IGOs, but we feel that his functionalist propositions are equally applicable to INGOs.

32. Nils Petter Gleditsch. Interaction Patterns in the Middle East. Cooperation and Conflict, 6, 1, 1971

Kjell Skjelsbaek. The Representation of Divided Countries in International Nongovernmental Organizations.

33. Typically a volume of 580 pages on "international organizations" may contain a 12 line reference excluding INGOs in the following terms,
"Des associations revetant les formes d'une organisation internationale peuvent etre créée par des personnes do droit privé ou do droit public non étatique .... Mais, n'étant pas formées par les Etats, ce no sont pas là des organisations internationales au sons strict des termes." (W.J. Ganshof van der Meersch. Organisations Européennes. Bruxelles, Emile Bruylant, 1966).

34. As an example, in justifying the exclusion of certain categories of organizations from an adequate data base on the global system, Michael Wallace and J. David Singer make the following point: "First, our theoretical interests (and, we suspect, those of most of our colleagues) are more concerned with IGO's (inter
governmental organizations) than with nongovernmental organiza tions (NGOs) .... One can hardly urge that the amount of NGO is likely to be important in accounting for many of the theoretically interesting phenomena which occurred in the system of the past century or so." (Intergovernmental Organizations in the Global System, 1815-1960; A Quantitative Description. International Organization, 24, 2, Spring 1970, p. 240) For some of the consequences of this attitude, see Chadwick F. Alger, Research on Research; a decade of quantitative and field research on international organizations,. International Organization, Summer 1970, pp. 414-450; This study indicated that 66% of the studies were on the UN (28 bodies), 19% on the other IGOs (201), possibly with the UN, 14% were on INGOs (2577),
and 0% were on MNCs (2819). (Data on the numbers from the 1968-1969 edition of the Yearbook of International Organizations).

35. This general ignorance about INGOs is clearly reflected even in the deliberations of the ECOSOC subcommittee on NGOs, which, among other things, selects INGOs for consultative status.

36. For example, it proved impossible to create a national professional body in the USSR to work on public administration, stimulated by membership of the International Institute of Administrative Sciences, because public administration was not considered a science in the USSR.

37. In reviewing the results of the United Nations first Development Decade (1960-1970), the Secretary General of UNCTAD stressed that the highest priority should be placed on the persuasion of public opinion and the creation of political will to avoid a second Development Decade of oven deeper frustration. The danger lies in the probability that the United Nations system public information programmes (together with those of the national United Nations Associations) will lead to informed public, many decision-makers, and UN officials to believe that the UN is doing all that can or need be done and has the attack on every world problem well-coordinated. This automatically devalues the activities of other bodies, reduces the allocation of resources and support to them, dampens initiative from the local and national level which is not channelled through governmental and UN channels, and effectively nullifies the type of constructive critic icism which can lead to renewal of effort, new approaches, and galvanization of the political will necessary to the accomplish ment of all internation (and UN) programme objectives.

38. David Horton Smith. Future trends in voluntary action. International Associations. 24, 2, 1972, pp. 166- 169.

39. Judge, Anthony. Wanted: New Types of Social Entity. International Associations 23, 3, 1971, pp. 148-170. [text]

Judge, Anthony. Communication and International Organizations. International Associations, 22, 27 1970, pp. 67-79. [text]

40. David Bohm. The Special Theory of Relativity. Benjamin, 1965, (Appendix on physics and perception).

41. Norman J. Schofield: "A topological model of international relations" (Paper presented at a conference of the Peace Research Society, International, London, 1971 -- to be published in the Papers of the Society).

42. As an indication of the amount of internationally unrecognized organization activity on which the more visible INGOs are based. David Horton Smith estimates for the USA that there are from 30 to 100 voluntary associations per 1000 population in town with less than 10,000 (5 to 30 per 1000 for larger towns) g ving approximately 5 million voluntary bodies for the USA as a whole. ("Estimation of the total number of voluntary associations in the United States". Washington, D.C. Center for a Voluntary Society, 1970, unpublished paper; preliminary investigation shows that similar per capital figures hold in European countries). An indication of the amount of ad hoc linkage represented by the meetings of such bodies is given by a by a study for the Social Work Advisory Service (London). It was found that those with offices held an average of 23 inside meetings per year of more than 10 people, and an average of 5 outside meetings per year of which 50 per cent were for more than 200 people.

Judge, Anthony. A study into the feasibility of establishing an administrative centre for a group of voluntary organizations. London, 1970, summarized in International Associations, 24, 1972, 3, pp. 155-157 [text]

43. Johan Galtung. Non-territorial actors and the problem of peace. Oslo, Paper of the International Peace Research Institute, 1969.

44. "1 have found in the corporation something that I can explain only in territorial terms even though it is not strictly territorial. It is a kind of territorial defense of role or job, and although it certainly operated within individuals, it is at its most powerful in groups: "my department's responsibility", "my salesmen's area", "my union's job" .... The result is something I can only call a quasi-territorial response, a defense of your means of livelihood calling upon territorial instincts but not precisely or exclusively territorial in its application". (Antony Jay. The Corporation Man, op.cit. p. 132).

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