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Information Systems and Inter-Organizational Space

Citations of non-Kairos documents (References)

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1. United Nations ECOSOC Enlarged Committee for Programme and Coordination. Development of Modern Management Techniques and Use of Computers. E/AC.51/GR/L.9, October 7, 1968.

2. United Nations, Capacity Study of the United Nations Development System, vol. 1 (United Nations, 1969), pp. 12-13. For some of the changes recently recommended, see United Nations, ECOSOC, The Capacity of the United Nations Development System, E/RES/1530 (49), July 29, 1970; and United Nations, ECOSOC, Development and Coordination of the Activities of the Organizations Within the United Nations System, E/4921, July 30, 1970.

3. Capacity Study, vol. 1, p. 4.

4. Each group of persons committed to one area of knowledge or activity is, from this area, apparently surrounded, within such a space, by the more or less chaotic collection of activities of other groups of barely understood significance. This resembles somewhat the science-fiction prediction of the migration of man to distant planets and galaxies, with the resultant fragmentation of mankind into subcultures with little intercommunication. In man's colonization of, and commitment to, the different domains of the universe of knowledge and specialist activity, the equivalent of this situation may already be considered to exist. Each group considers its own perspective to be of most relevance to the solution of any problem -or else considers the problem to be of relative insignificance, or the responsibility of some unspecified body.

5. Capacity Study, vol. 2, p. 422.

6. Gross, Bertram M.  Organizations and Their Managing. Free Press, 1968, p. 636.

7. As an example, in justifying the exclusion of certain categories of organizations from an adequate data base on the global system, Michael Wallace and J. David Singer make the following point: 'First, our theoretical interests (and, we suspect, those of most of our colleagues) are more concerned with IGO's [intergovernmental organizations] than with nongovernmental organizations (NGO's). ... One can hardly urge that the amount of NGO is likely to be important in accounting for many of the theoretically interesting phenomena which occurred in the system of the past century or so.' 'Intergovernmental Organizations in the Global System, 1815-1960; A Quantitative Description,' International Organization, 24, 2 (Spring 1970), p. 240. For some of the consequences of this, see Chadwick F. Alger, Research on Research: A Decade of Quantitative and Field Research on International Organizations. (Paper presented to the American Political Science Association annual meeting, September 1969.)

8. Gross, Bertram M.  The State of the Nations: Social Systems Accounting. In: R. A. Bauer, ed., Social Indicators, M.I.T., 1966, p. 194.

9. Ibid., pp. 269-70

10. On this point, see Toward Master Social Indicators (Stanford, Calif.: Educational Policy Research Center, Research Memorandum), February 1969.

11. Gross, Bertram M.  Organizations and Their Managing. Free Press, 1968, p. 636.

Chadwick F. Alger. Research on Research. op. cit

Aiken, Michael / Hage, J.  Organizational Interdependence and Intra-organizational Structure. American Sociological Review, 33, 6 (December 1968), pp. 912-930.

12. United Nations, ECOSOC. The Application of Computer Technology for Development Report of the Secretary-General. E/4800, May 20, 1970, par, 42.

13. cit., Op.  Annex I, par. 42.

14. For example, in the analysis of commodity markets, or for stock transactions between parties who remain anonymous during the bargaining process

15. Consider the social significance of the future development of currently embryonic computer systems such as those for matching man and job in labor exchanges, or man and literature in information-retrieval profile systems, as well as the rapidly developing computer dating systems.

16. Judge, Anthony. See Kairos documents cited by this documnent

17. Alger, Chadwick F.  Problems in Global Organization. Paper to be published in International Social Science Journal, 1970.

18. National Academy of Sciences. Scientific and Technical Communication; A Pressing National Problem and Recommendations for Its Solution. National Academy of Sciences, 1969

19. Op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 66

20. United Nations, ECOSOC. E/AC.51/ 25, par. 78.

21. United Nations, ECOSOC. Enlarged Committee for Programme and Coordination. E/AC.51/GR/25, 2 October 1969, p. 9.

22. Drucker, Peter F.  The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society. Harper and Row, 1968, p. 350.

23. Editorial, Fortune, February 1970, p. 92

24. Genthner, H. J.  Interactive Computer Graphics. Computer and Automation, November 1968, pp. 14-17.

25. Ibid

26. E/AC,.  51/GR/25, p. 36.

27. Sutherland, Ivan.  Computer Displays. Scientific American, 222 (June 1970), pp. 56-81. This also illustrates the use of color.

Michael, G. A.  Pictures, Computers and Input-Output. In: D. B. Dobrow and J. L. Schwartz, eds., Computers and the Policy-making Community: Applications to International Relations. Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 272-306.

International Symposium 'Computer Graphics 70,' sessions and papers, 3 vols. Brunel University, 1970

28. Sutherland, Ivan.  Computer Graphics. Datamation, May 1966, pp. 22-27.

Brown, Dean / Lewis, Joan.  The Process of Conceptualization: Some Fundamental Principles of Learning Useful in Teaching With or Without the Participation of Computer.' (Stanford, Calif.: Educational Policy Research Center, Stanford Research Institute), 1968, pp. 16-17.

29. Tesler, L. / Enea, H. / Colby, K. M.  A Directed Graph Representation for Computer Simulation of Belief Systems. Mathematical Biosciences, 2, no. 112 (February 1968), pp. 19-40.

30. Hyde, Gordon.  A relativistic treatment of discrete information and entropy with particular application to natural and artificial negentropic self-organizing systems. Datatrac, Ltd., 1969.

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