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Transcending Duality through Tensional Integrity


Citations of non-Kairos documents (References)

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13. Kahn, Lloyd.  Domebook 2. Bolinas, Cal., Shelter Publications, 1971. John Prenis (Ed.). The Dome Builders Handbook. Philadelphia, Running Press, 1973.

14. Clinton, J.  Advanced Structural Design Concepts for Future Space Missions. (NASA Contact NGR-14-008-002, 1970). Distributed by National Technical Information Service (Springfield, Va) as: Advanced Structural Geometry Studies, Part 1.

15. Bastide, Roger  (Ed.).    Sens et usages du terme * structure. dans les sciences humaines et sociales. The Hague, Mouton, 1962.

16. Judge, Anthony. International organization networks; a complementary perspective. In: Paul Taylor and A J R Groom (Ed.)., International Organization, Frances Pinter, 1977, pp. 381-413. [text]

17. Union of International Associations / Mankind 2000: See Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential (1976-1995, and thereafter online)

18. Warfield, John N.  Structuring Complex Systems. Battelle Memorial Institute, 1974, Monograph 4.

Tesler, L.  A directed graph representation for computer simulation of belief systems. Mathematical Biosciences, 2, 1/2, Feb 1968, pp. 19-40.

19. The compression elements may be conceived as "transformative" paths whereby energy/material at one end is converted through an appropriate work cycle into a different form at the other end. The finite time for this process establishes the "distance" between the two ends.

20. Fuller makes the following points about compression. It accumulates potential. It is specifically directional. It is dispersive. inherently partial and tends to local dichotomy and multiplication by separation

21. Holton, Gerald.  The Roots of Complementarity. Daedalus, Fall 1970, pp. 1015-1055.

22. Asymmetric effects are also introduced by the tensegrity's orientation with respect to gravity.

23. Fuller makes the following points about tension. It is comprehensive, attractive and inherently integral. It is both omni- and supradirectional. It is universally cohering and comprehensively finite. It is inherently total

24. Cartwright, D. / Zander, A.  Group Dynamics: research and theory. Row Peterson, 1960, p. 74.

25. In sociology this is known as the equilibrium problem noted by R. Bales (1955). The group solidarity acts in opposition to differentiation and divisor of labour necessary in adapting to its environment; all groups are caught in transient equilibrium resulting from these forces. A structure most effective for the ends of the group may not be most satisfying interpersonally.

26. The question of synergy in small groups has been investigated by R. Cattell (see Cattell and Nice, 1960). He also explored "syntality" (as the small group equivalent of individual personality), and the problem of the classification of syntalities.

27. R V Speck and C L Attneave. Family Networks. Pantheon, 1973.

28. Judge, Anthony.  Organizational systems versus network organization. Transnational Associations, 29, 1977, 9, pp. 360-364 (Part 1); 11, pp. 479-484  (Part 2).

29. Rather than as a simple dismantling of hierarchy, which also has its advocates. There is inherent elegance in the expectation that better organization will emerge in transforming from a planar unidirectional representation to one which curves back upon itself symmetrically in a plurality of directions.

31. "It is experimentally demonstrable that an apparent "plane" is a "surface" area of some structural system"

32. The geometry requires that a compression element passing relatively close by the centre should constitute a longer chord than one passing further away. The former could then only be part of a tensegrity based on a simpler and less spherical polyhedron (e.g. a tetrahedron), increasing length may then be associated with greater functional incompatibility and "cruder" (or more fundamental) systems. In the extreme case, when the chord passes through the (coordinative focal) centre, opposition is at a maximum and may be uncontainable within the system -- as is typical of unmediated conflict.

33. Judge, Anthony. Matrix organization and organizational networks. International Associations, 23, 1971, 3, pp. 154-170. [text]

34. D Cartwright and F Harary. Structural balance: a generalisation of Heider's theory. In: D Carwright and A Zander. Op. cit., pp. 705-726

35. Kenner, Hugh.  Geodesic Math and How to Use It. University of California Press, 1976, p. 12.

36. "If you just tauten one point in a tensegrity system, all the other parts of it tighten evenly. If you twang any tension member anywhere the structure, it will give the same resonant note as the others...Until its tension is altered, each tensegrity structure... has its own unique frequency."

37. Kenner, Hugh.  Geodesic Math and How to Use It. University of California Press, 1976, pp. 32-35.

39. Note also the sense underlying the phrase "tightening up" an argument, a proof, or a legal case.

40. Beer, Stafford.  Chairman's Address to the International Cybernetic Congress, 1969.

41. Critchlow, Keith.  Order in Space; a design source book. Thames and Hudson, 1969; Robert Williams. Natural Structures: toward a form language. Moorpark, Cal., Eudaemon Press, 1972; Anthony Pugh. Polyhedra; a visual approach. University of California Press, 1976.

42. Judge, Anthony.  See articles on computer conferencing. Transnational Associations, 29, 1977, 10.

43. In fact Keith Critchlow has attempted to show that the pattern of relationships between suuch structures can itself be mapped by them. See Order In Space. pp. 18-23, pp. 38-39.

45. Collins, B. E. / Raven, B. H.  Group structure: attraction, coalitions, communication and power. In: The Handbook of Social Psychology, Reading, Addision-Wesley. 2nd ed.

46. Harold Guetzkow. Differentiation of roles in task-oriented groups. In: Cartwright and Zander. Op. cit., pp. 683-704

47. There is also the question of the structuring effect of the limitation on channel capacity and the effects arising with more than 7 channels per role. See: G. Miller. The magical number seven plus or minus two; some limitations on our capacity for processing information. In his: Psychology of Communication. Basic Books, 1967.

48. There is then a tendency for each role-function to act as though it was at a central point on a "flat-earth", rather than appreciating that it has to deal with "functional roundness" -- and that even the most distant and apparently "irrelevant" are in no danger of "falling off" an edge.

49. This raises very interesting problems in the case of computer based information systems, particularly the file design in the case of conferencing-type systems which should reflect the "great-circle" tensional pathways between participants, possibly only permitting certain links for each participant. Even more interesting are the computer implications of "flipping" between tensegrity patterns according to the problem faced by the group

50. "A fully relaxed spherical tensegrity structure may be crumpled together in a tight bundle without hurting it, just as a net shopping bag can be stuffed into a small space... As struts are inserted into the spheric-tension network, the whole spheric system is seen to be expanding omnioutwardly as do pneumatic balloons when air is progressitely introduced into their previously crumpled skins"

51. Union of International Associations / Mankind 2000: See Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential (1976-1995, and thereafter online)

52. Tucci, Giuseppe.  The Theory and Practice of the Mandala. Rider, 1961.

53. Singer, June.  Androgyny. Doubleday, 1976, pp. 1 and 5.

54. A few years ago Fuller's geodesic domes (one application of tensegrity principles) seemed equally preposterious. Yet an early dome, 145 feet in diameter, was erected in 22 hours for immediate use as a concert hall. Another, 384 feet in diameter, weighs only 1.200 tons, compared to the 10,000 ton dome of St Peter's in Rome (diameter 131 feet). A three-quarter sphere, 250 feet in diameter, weighs 600 tons

55. Judge, Anthony. System-Network complementarity. Transnational Associations, 29 1977, 9, pp. 365-368 (especially the table). [text]

56. June Singer (Androgyny. op. cit.) discusses many of the more fundamental aspects of psycho-social duality and their integration, which should help to clarify equivalents to tension and compression

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