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Variety radically intoned through versification and wordplay


Evoking Castalia as Envisaged, Entoned and Embodied -- informed by the bertsolitaria process ? (Part #11)


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"Re-cognizing" dynamics in enhancing rhetoric: The images above respond to the challenge of alternative classifications of the figures of speech employed in rhetoric. They do not address the dynamics of the shifts from one figure to another in any rhetorical process -- and in response to figures deployed by challenging interlocuteurs, as in any duel or joust.

Dance: Using an alternative metaphor, the patterns may be understood as "dancing" (Sustainability through Magically Dancing Patterns 8x8, 9x9, 19x19 -- I Ching, Tao Te Ching / T'ai Hsüan Ching, Wéiqí (Go), 2008). Discourse can of course be readily compared to a dance, especially as recognized in sustained repartee and wordplay -- also understood as game playing.

Use of this metaphor recalls the various notations of movements in dance, otherwise known as kinetography, most notably Labanotation. More generally, systematic description of body movement in other disciplines (acrobacy, skaetboarding, etc) suggests a degree of relationship with cognitive transformation effectively encoded by distinctive patterns of movement (Maxine Sheets-Johnstone, The Primacy of Movement, 2011). *** kinaesthetic intelligence

Wordplay: An extensive description of forms of wordplay is offered by Wikipedia and summarized below. The issue here is how these are combined into comprehensible patterns.

Forms of word play
phonetic values of words mondegreen, onomatopoeia, rhyme (alliteration, assonance, consonance:, holorime), spoonerism:, janusism
letters acronym, acrostic (mesostic, word square), backronym, anagram (ambigram, blanagram, letter bank, jumble), chronogram, lipogram, palindrome, pangram, tautogram.
semantics and choice of words anglish, auto-antonym, autogram, malapropism, neologism (portmanteau, retronym), oxymoron, pun, slang
manipulation of the entire sentence or passage Dog Latin, language game
formation of a name ananym, aptronym, charactonym, eponym, pseudonym, sobriquet
figure of speech conversion (word formation), dysphemism, euphemism, kenning (or circumlocution), paraprosdokian

Typical in wordplay is the manner, through the dynamics, in which the other is reframed, placed at a disadvantage (off-footed), or "set up".

Transactional games and plots: Wordplay may well be a feature of the set of transactional games identified by transactional analysis. (Eric Berne, Games People Play: the basic hand book of transactional analysis, 1964). Whether considered counterproductive or not, these may be understood in relation to the set of dramatic plots (as presented by the media) -- and more generally in terms of the theory of games.

Seemingly, as "games", these transactions have not lent themselves to a systematic listing. With the focus on analysis, the implied pattern language is elusive. This contrasts with efforts to provide a descriptive list of dramatic plots (Christopher Booker, The Seven Basic Plots: why we tell stories, 2004; Georges Polti, The Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations). Equally elusive, however, is any richer and more general listing which might have been expected from the extensive development of game theory (List of games in game theory). The types of game distinguished in that context are:

Irrespective of "transactional games", game theory distinguishes the following types of games:

Cooperative / Non-cooperative
Simultaneous / Sequential
Infinitely long games
Many-player and population games
Pooling games
Symmetric / Asymmetric
Perfect information and imperfect information
Discrete and continuous games
Stochastic outcomes
Zero-sum / Non-zero-sum
Combinatorial games
Differential games
Metagames

The question of how many types of game can be played is addressed otherwise in the case of board games (such as chess and go).

Rhyme and rhythm: In contrast with any analytical approach, the recognition of pattern is significantly enabled in Castalia through the aesthetic connectivity associated with a sense of rhyme and rhythm. Connectivity is thus recognized through aesthetic correspondences. As distinguished by Wikipedia, the varieties of rhyme are:

  • perfect rhymes (distinguished by the number of syllables included in the rhyme): single, double, dactylic
  • general rhymes (distinguished by various kinds of phonetic similarity between words): syllabic, imperfect, weak (or unaccented), semirhyme, forced (or oblique), assonance, consonance, half rhyme (or slant rhyme), pararhyme, alliteration (or head rhyme).
  • identical rhymes (typically through homophones and homonyms)
  • eye rhymes (namely similarity in spelling)
  • mind rhymes (similar to rhyming slang)

The significance and appeal of rhyme is further affected by:

Tone of voice and intonation: Just as Castalia has been influenced by the alternative understandings of figures of speech in other cultures, this extended to the cognitive implications associated with tonal languages. As noted in the summary by Wikipedia:

In the most widely spoken tonal language, Mandarin Chinese, tones are distinguished by their distinctive shape, known as contour, with each tone having a different internal pattern of rising and falling pitch. Many words, especially monosyllabic ones, are differentiated solely by tone....

Contour systems are typical of languages of the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area.... [some] languages spoken in Africa are dominated by register systems. Some languages combine both systems, such as Cantonese, which produces three varieties of contour tone at three different pitch levels...

Languages may distinguish up to five levels of pitch. Since tone contours may involve up to two shifts in pitch, there are theoretically 125 distinct tones for a language with five registers (namely 5 x 5 x 5). However, the most that are actually used in a language is a tenth of that number.

As reviewed by Aijun Li, et al. (Emotional Intonation in a Tone Language: experimental evidence from Chinese, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2011):

Chinese is a tonal language. How lexical tones and intonation interplay with each other is an interesting question. In this study, we investigated emotional intonations by analyzing monosyllabic utterances from two speakers. We found that the tonal space, the edge tone and the duration differ greatly across 7 emotions, and that different speakers showed consistent production patterns. The speakers expressed "Disgust" or "Angry" by using a kind of "Falling" successive addition tone, and "Happy" or "Surprise" by a kind of "Rising" successive addition tone, as pointed out by Chao.

More conventionally, in western aesthetic terms, the focus is on emotional prosody, namely as characterized as an individual's tone of voice in speech that is conveyed through changes in pitch, loudness, timbre, speech rate, and pauses which is different from linguistic and semantic information. This frames the possibility of an Emotional tone scale, as developed by scientology and the possibility of Abstracting Emotions Using Frequency Modulated Tones

For Eliezer Rapoport (Emotional Expression Code in Opera and Lied Singing, Zainea)

Emotional expression in singing is encoded at the microlevel of the single individual tone, and is deciphered by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis. FFT spectrograms of vocal tones, from recordings of opera arias and lieder sung by famous artists, reveal a large variety of (tonal) temporal structures, composed of several initial stages, that are correlated in a very systematic way with the emotions expressed in the text and the music. Over 50 distinct types of vocal tone structures (to be called modes) were identified, and classified into eight main categories: Neutral-Soft, Calm, Expressive, Transitional-Multistage, Intermediate, Short, Excited, and Virtuoso, in a very well-defined hierarchical scheme. These various types of temporal structures, and in particular the tone beginnings, are controlled by the interplay of seven mechanisms: 1) onset of phonation (voicing); 2) vibrato; 3) excitation of higher harmonic partials, (particularly the singing formant); 4) transition - a gradual pitch increase from the onset to the sustained stage; 5) sforzando - an abrupt pitch increase at the very onset of the tone; 6) pitch change within the tone; and 7) unit pulse.

The large number and variety of these temporal structures (modes) are so shaped deliberately (but unawarely), by the singers for expressing the large richness and variety of emotions from sadness to joy, and from happiness to anger. Furthermore, these modes indeed constitute the language of emotional expression in singing deciphered in the present study. A notation, based on the operating mechanisms was developed, and is in effect the alphabet. The various modes are the vocabulary, and the categories and their use in the melodic phrase constitute the grammar and syntax rules of this language.

Especially intriguing is the manner in which tonal and melodic sequences are associated dynamically with the geometry, as an instrument in play -- notably the resonances between lines as "strings", or between resonance chambers. As potentially suggested by the Book of Kells, the constraints and possibilities of poetic coherence may be determined by the intersection of lines governing structural rules.

As the geometry may be read, it can be understood as a meta-pattern framing possible variations reversals as explored in music. Thus classic composers, including Mozart, Bach and Haydn created pieces in which time, pitch and/or melody was reversed at some point -- a technique known as crab canon -- leading to studies on retrograde performance (Yingshou Xing, et al, Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: evidences from behaviours and neurobiology bases, Scientific Reports 6, 2016).

As noted by the Riemenschneider Bach Institute, in three canons, including the Crucigeros, Bach employs an especially rigorous procedure in which intervals not only reverse direction but also strictly maintain quality as well as number. The follower voice of these "mirror" canons may be discerned, quite literally, in the reflected images of their leaders (The Crown of Thorns, 1997). Given the significance of the sets of variations, it is unclear what musical significance their reversal can be interprerted to have, as separately explored (Reversing the Anthem of Europe to Signal Distress: transcending crises of governance via reverse music and reverse speech? 2016).

Given the importance attached to Beethoven's musical insight, the argument invites attention to the perspective from which the 32 Variations on an Original Theme in C minor (1806) were created, following the earlier initiative of Johann Sebastian Bach (30 Goldberg Variations, 1741). These were a notably feature of the study on self-reflexivity by Douglas Hofstadter (Gödel, Escher, Bach: an eternal golden braid, 1979). From what is the coherence of the pattern composed and produced by composer Benjamin Mapochi (La Folia 72 Variations)?


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