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Systems of Categories Distinguishing Cultural Biases: with notes on facilitation in


Systems of Categories Distinguishing Cultural Biases
2. System of Geert Hofstede
3. System of Kinhide Mushakoji
4. System of Will McWhinney
5. System of S Pepper
6. System of Mary Douglas
7. System of Howard Gardner
8. System of W T Jones
9. System of Emmanuel Todd

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Notes on facilitation in a multi-cultural environment are provided separately

System of Magoroh Maruyama
System of Geert Hofstede
System of Kinhide Mushakoji
System of Will McWhinney
System of S Pepper
System of Mary Douglas
System of Howard Gardner
System of W T Jones
System of Emmanuel Todd

1. System of Magoroh Maruyama

(Mindscapes, social patterns and future development of scientific theory types. Cybernetica, 1980, 23, 1, pp. 5-25)

Four epistemological mindscapes:

1.1 H-mindscape (homogenistic, hierarchical, classificational): Parts are subordinated to the whole, with subcategories neatly grouped into supercategories. The strongest, or the majority, dominate at the expense of the weak (whether values, policies, problems, priorities, etc). Logic is deductive and axiomatic demanding sequential reasoning. Cause-effect relations may be deterministic or probabilistic.

1.2 I-mindscape (heterogenistic, individualistic, random): Only individuals are real, even when aggregated into society. Emphasis on self-sufficiency, independence and individual values. Design favours the random, the capricious and the unexpected. Scheduling and planning are to be avoided. Non-random events are improbable. Each question has its own answer; there are no universal principles.

1.3 S-mindscape (heterogenistic, interactive, homeostatic): Society consists of heterogeneous individuals who interact non-hierarchically to mutual advantages. Mutual dependency. Differences are desirable and contribute to the harmony of the whole. Maintenance of the natural equilibrium. Values are interrelated and cannot be rank-ordered. Avoidance of repetition. Causal loops. Categories not mutually exclusive. Objectivity is less useful than 'cross-subjectivity' or multiple viewpoints. Meaning is context dependent.

1.4 G-mindscape (heterogenistic, interactive, morphogenetic): Heterogeneous individuals interact non-hierarchically for mutual benefit, generating new patterns and harmony. Nature in continually changing requiring allowance for change. Values interact to generate new values and meanings. Values of deliberate (anticipatory) incompleteness. Causal loops. Multiple evolving meanings.

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